Genetics: The scientific study of heredity.
Genetics could be explained as a game of chance. Whatever genes your parents have, will be passed down to yourself. In other words it's all about heredity. Heredity is the passing of traits from one generation to the next. There are two ways to pass down genes, and not only humans do it. There is asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.
Asexual reproduction relates to mitosis.

Mitosis is part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides.

Characteristics of living things: They are determined by genes, that are passed down from you parents to you from one generation from the next. Heredity plays the biggest part in this.
Genes and Dominance: The principle of dominace states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive. If one parent has a dominate gene for brown eyes, BB, and the other parent has a recessive gene for green eyes, bb, then the offspring will have a 100% chance of having brown. Both parents are homozygous, but if they were both heterozygous, then one parent would have one recessive and one dominant gene, Bb, and the other would have the same, Bb, so the offspring would have a 75% chance of having brown eyes, and 25% chance of having green eyes. Heterozygous organisims are hybrids for a curtain trait. Homozygous are true breeding for a particular trait. Punnett squares are a diagram used to show these gene combinations.
external image square3.gif external image punnett-square2_BbxBb.gif

Your phenotype is your physical trait that you see, or the trait that was dominant over the recessive trait. The genotype is the genetic make up of an organism. This means that if you have you have a physical trait for brown eyes, you could still have the recessive gene for green eyes, so your offsring could have a chance of getting green eyes. It also depends on the other parents genetic make up.
Probability: The likelihood that a particular event will occur. The principles of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses. The way alleles segregate is completely random like a coin flip. Segregation is the separation of alleles during gamete formation. If you flip a coin, say three times, the probability of the coin landing heads up each time is 1/2. Probabilities are more accurate with larger numbers although it can't predict the definite outcome. Genetics is the same way.
Mendelian Genetics
Independent Assortment: Independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes. The F₁cross provieds the hybrid plants for the next cross, although it doesn't indicate if the genes assort or segregate independently......(add more)
Mendel's Principles:
-In most organisms that reproduce sexually, each adult has two copies of each gene. When gametes form, those genes segregate from eachother.