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Introduction to Wikis
1 The Science of Biology
2 Organic Chemistry and Water
7 Cell Structure and Function
10 Cell Growth and Division
11 Introduction to Genetics
12 DNA and RNA
13 Genetic Engineering
13 Genetic Engineering Part 2
14 The Human Genome
7 Cell Structure and Function
- this video explains very well cell structure and it has great animation.
- Very in depth professor talks about cell structure and function.
- this one explains every part of cell in detail.
The common features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are:
, the genetic material contained in one or more chromosomes and located in a nonmembrane bound nucleoid region in prokaryotes and a membrane-bound nucleus in eukaryotes
, a phospholipid bilayer with proteins that separates the cell from the surrounding environment and functions as a selective barrier for the import and export of materials
, the rest of the material of the cell within the plasma membrane, excluding the nucleoid region or nucleus, that consists of a fluid portion called the cytosol and the organelles and other particulates suspended in it
, the organelles on which protein synthesis takes place
Prokaryotic cells are fundamentally different in their internal organization from eukaryotic cells. Notably, prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and membranous organelles
THE CELL THEORY
Cell Theory states three different things.
1. All living things are composed of cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
3. New cells are produced from existing cells.
BASIC CELL STRUCTURES
Most cells range from 5 to 50 micrometers in diameter. There are many exceptions though, there was once a huge amoeba called
that was 100 micrometers long! Oh my gosh!!!
A micrometer is one thousandth of a meter long, or a hundredth of a centimeter.below is an image of a cell.
PARTS OF THE CELL
A cell is very similar to a factory...or a zoo. It is made up of many different parts and steps working nonstop too keep whatever the cell is a part of, alive and healthy.
There are two main types of cells, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Before we state the different parts of the cell, lets go over the differences first.
Prokaryotic cells are usually smaller than eukaryotic cells but that doesn't define the cells. The main difference between the two cells is that the eukaryotes have central core area called the nucleus, the nucleus contains all the genetic material for the cell. Prokaryotic cells don't have a nucleus and instead just have the genetic goo floating around the inside of the cell.
This link should give you a good summery of The Cell
This video link should give you a basic summery of cells.
Organelles of a cell
vacuoles store materials like water, salt, proteins, and carbohydrates. they are larger in plant cell than in animal cells. in plant cells, there is one central plant cell that can increase the strength of the entire cell.
lysosomes break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell. they are also involved in breaking down organelles that have outlived their usefulness.
only found in plant cells. they capture the energy from the sun and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photsynthesis.
the cytoskeleton helps maintain the cell's shape and also helps move the cell around. Made of two different parts, microfilaments and microtubules.
threadlike structures made up by a protein called actin. They produce a tough and flexible framwork that can support the cell, but they can also help the cell move. The assembly and breakdown of microfilaments are responsible for cytoplasmic movements that allow amoebas and other cells to crawl along surfaces.
Hollow structures made of proteins called tubulins. They play a critical role in maintaining cell shape. Microtubules are also important when it comes to cell division, where they form a structure known as mitotic spindle. Organelles called
are located near the nucleus. They help to make tubulins to make microtubules. Centrioles are not found in plant cells.
- ribosomes are small particales of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in all cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R) -
Where lipid components of the cell are made. Split into two different types of E.R
Rough E.R -
has ribosomes on it, which gives it its name. ribosomes put the proteins into the rough E.R to chemically modified. Usually these proteins are the ones that will be released from the cell or placed in otherlocations around the cell.
- does not have ribosomes on it. contains enzymes that perform specialized tasks such as the synthesis of membrane lipis and the detoxification of drugs.
Golgi Apparatus -
modifies, sorts, and packages proteinsand other materials from the E.R for storage in the cell or realease outside of the cell.
Converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds are more convenient for the cell to use.
Cell Wall -
Only found in plant cells. Main job is to support, shape, and protect the cell.
Serve as pathways for the exchange of the materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
The plasma membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Many molecules cross the cell membrane by diffusion and osmosis.
A major function of the peroxisome is the breakdown of very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation.
is the process by which fatty acids are broken down into mitochondria.
Are thought to be sensors for the cell.
A little more in depth picture, show more of the organelles of the cell.
- A video on cell structure from Khan Academy
- the process in which particles move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
- Does not use cellular energy
- Goes until equilibrium is reached inside and outside of the cell.
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